Techniques of Scientific Management
Let us now discuss the techniques specified. These are based on various experiments by him during his career. Techniques of Scientific Management
Techniques of scientific management functional foremanship
In the factory system, the foreman represents the managerial person with whom the employees are in face-to-face contact daily. In the first chapter of the book, you see that the foreman is the lowest-ranked manager and the highest-ranking worker. It is the pivot around which the entire production planning, implementation, and control revolve. Thus, Taylor focused on improving the performance of this role in the factory setting. He identified a list of qualities of a good foreman/supervisor and found that no one person could fit all of them. This prompted him to suggest functional foremanship through eight persons.
The concept was extended to the lowest level of the shop floor. This was known as functional foremanship. Under the factory manager, there was planning in charge and production in charge. Four personnel, namely, instruction card clerk, route clerk, time and cost under the scheme in charge.
Clerks and disciplinarians worked. This four personnel will draft instructions for workers, specify the route of production, prepare time and cost sheets and ensure discipline.
Personnel working under Production Incharge Speed Boss, Gang Boss, Repair Boss,
and inspector. These were respectively responsible for timely and correct completion of work, keeping machines and equipment, etc. ready for operation by workers, ensuring proper/working condition of machines and equipment, and checking the quality of work. Functional foremanship extends the principle of division of work and specialization on the shop floor. Each worker has to take orders from these eight foremen in the respective process or work of production. The foreman must have intelligence, education, tact, patience, judgment, special knowledge, physical dexterity, energy, honesty, and good health. Since all these qualities could not be found in a single person, Taylor proposed eight experts. Each specialist is to be assigned work according to his/her merits. For example, those with technical proficiency, intelligence, and patience may be given the job of planning. People with energy and good health can be assigned the execution task.
Standardization and Simplification of Work
Taylor was a strong supporter of standardization. To analyze the methods of production prevailing under the rule of thumb. Best practices can be put in place and further refined to develop a standard that should be followed. This can be done through work-study techniques including time study, motion study, fatigue study, and method study, which are discussed further in this chapter. it can be said that
Even contemporary techniques of business process including reengineering, kaizen (continuing.)
improvement) and benchmarking aims to standardize the work. Standardization refers to the process of setting standards for each business activity; This may be standardization of process, raw materials, timing, products, machinery, methods, or working conditions. these are the standards
Benchmarks, which must be followed during production. The objectives of standardization are: